Introduction to Urban Fundamentals

Second-degree effects

Eastwood Mall, AR opened in 1960

If the history of city building in the last century tells us anything, it is that the unintended consequences of new technologies often dwarf their intended design (Anthony M. Townsend, “Smart Cities”).

In all fairness, it takes a long time to implement major changes in cities and an even longer time to evaluate their effects, both intended and unintended. On top of that, most disruptive technologies had nothing to do with cities in the first place. Cars or air conditioners weren’t invented to change the design of cities. The mobile phone was not created with cities in mind. What mattered were their second-degree effects. In the words of Carl Sagan, “It was easy to predict mass car ownership but hard to predict Walmart.”

Fundamentals

Fundamentals exhibition curated by Rem Koolhaas, photo source: Arch2O

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Co-founder Apt Buildings, Inc., previously Airbnb Samara and Asmbld

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Fed Novikov

Fed Novikov

Co-founder Apt Buildings, Inc., previously Airbnb Samara and Asmbld